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Home Archive Volume 08,Issue 04,Year 2017
Volume 08,Issue 04,Year 2017

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Original article

Sivakumar Vijayaraghavalu1*#, Kulanthaivel Thalakompudur Marappagounder1, Noohu Abdulla Khan2 and Munish Kumar3

1Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, College of Pharmacy, King Khalid University (KKU), Abha, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA)

2Department of Clinical Pharmacy, College of Pharmacy, KKU, Abha, KSA

3Department of Biochemistry, Allahabad University, Allahabad, Uttar Pradesh, India

Abstract:

Man has relied on plants as a source of therapeutic agents for centuries. Today, with the specter of antibiotic resistance, emerging infectious diseases, and cancers, phytochemicals continue to provide new structural leads for chemotherapeutic industry. Roots of Plumbago zeylanica, commonly named as white leadwort was used to treat various ailments in oriental medicines including cancer. The two most common Plumbago species in India are Plumbago zeylanica and Plumbago indica. Due to their morphological similarity the roots of two species are often misidentified and adulterated. Hence, this study was carried out to properly identify the roots of Plumbago zeylanica employing light microscopy and qualitatively characterize the phytochemicals in it. In addition, thin- layer chromatography (TLC), ultraviolet/visible- and infrared- spectroscopy was done to identify and quantify the active principle (plumbagin) in roots of Plumbago zeylanica procured from Chennai, India. The anatomical sectioning showed the structural difference between the roots of two species. The phytochemical evaluation revealed presence of various pharmacologically active components such as flavonoids, tannins, saponins and phytosterols. The TLC and UV studies showed the presence of plumbagin at the concentration of 0.1% w/w in the plant extract. Further infrared spectroscopy confirmed the presence of plumbagin in alcoholic root extract of Plumbago zeylanica. Presence of beneficial phytochemicals justifies its wide use as antioxidant, cardiotonic, anticancer, antibacterial and as chemopreventive agent against numerous pathological conditions in several traditional medical systems practiced across Asia.

Keywords: Plumbago zeylanica, Plumbago indica, plumbagin, IR, oriental herb, flavonoids, antioxidants, UV/visible.

Address reprint to:

*Sivakumar Vijayaraghavalu, Ph.D.

Assistant Professor, Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, College of Pharmacy, King Khalid University, Abha, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, P.O.Box:1882, Postal code:6144. Email: livshiva@gmail.com

Published under Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license.

Original article

Sivakumar Vijayaraghavalu* and Niranjali Devaraj, S

Department of Biochemistry, University of Madras, Guindy Campus, Chennai, 600025, India

Abstract:

Plumbago zeylanica, a widely used oriental herb in traditional medical systems across Asia was tested for its hepato-protective activity against diethylnitrosamine (DENA) induced liver damage in male wistar albino rats. DENA induced liver damage/hepatocarcinogensis is well accepted model to assess the in vivo anticancer activity of drugs and herbal extracts. For experimental purpose the rats were divided into four groups of six animals each. Liver damage was induced in a group of rats (positive control) by administering 200 ppm DENA in drinking water for 90 consecutive days. Treatment group received both DENA in drinking water and alcoholic root extract of Plumbago zeylanica (500 mg/kg b.wt.) by oral gavage for 90 days. Another group of animals received only the root extract and the animals that left untreated served as negative control. Results of this study shown a significant increase in tumor markers such as alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and 5’ nucleotidase in serum of DENA alone treated animals on comparison to negative control. Contrarily, the treatment group showed lower levels of tumor markers in serum when compared with positive control. Results were comparable between the animals that received only root extract and untreated animals. Conclusively, this study demonstrated the hepato-protective nature of alcoholic root extract of Plumbago zeylanica against chemical carcinogen induced liver damage.

Keywords: DENA, Diethylnitrosamine, AFP, CEA, Liver damage, Hepatocellular carcinoma, Plumbago zeylanica, Chemical carcinogen.

Address reprint to: *Sivakumar Vijayaraghavalu, Ph.D.

Department of Biochemistry, University of Madras, Guindy Campus, Chennai, 600025, India

Email: livshiva@gmail.com

Published under Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license.

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